The field of Space Biology is often formally called Astrobiology. Astrobiology is the study of life in outer space. The field of astrobiology looks for conditions necessary for life, like liquid water, a good temperature, or the presence of oxygen.
The main objective of Astrobiology research nowadays is to build a better understanding of how spaceflight affects living systems in spacecraft such as the International Space Station (ISS), or in ground-based experiments that mimic aspects of spaceflight, and to prepare for future human exploration missions far from Earth.
Other areas of investigation in Astrobiology include investigating the possibility of life on other planets and determining the necessary conditions required for life to emerge. Some possible places to find life in the solar system are Europa, Ganymede, moons of Jupiter, or Titan, and Enceladus, moons of Saturn. These places may have liquid water. They may be too cold to support life on their surfaces, but if they have liquid water, the water must be warm enough to support life. Astrobiologists suggest that there may be a liquid water ocean under their surfaces.